Chapter 9.94A RCW
Unless the context clearly requires otherwise, the definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter.
(1) "Collect," or any derivative thereof, "collect and remit," or "collect and deliver," when used with reference to the department of corrections, means that the department is responsible for monitoring and enforcing the offender's sentence with regard to the legal financial obligation, receiving payment thereof from the offender, and, consistent with current law, delivering daily the entire payment to the superior court clerk without depositing it in a departmental account.
(2) "Commission" means the sentencing guidelines commission.
(3) "Community corrections officer" means an employee of the department who is responsible for carrying out specific duties in supervision of sentenced offenders and monitoring of sentence conditions.
(4) "Community custody" means that portion of an inmate's sentence of confinement in lieu of early release time or imposed pursuant to RCW 9.94A.120(6) served in the community subject to controls placed on the inmate's movement and activities by the department of corrections.
(5) "Community placement" means that period during which the offender is subject to the conditions of community custody and/or postrelease supervision, which begins either upon completion of the term of confinement (postrelease supervision) or at such time as the offender is transferred to community custody in lieu of early release. Community placement may consist of entirely community custody, entirely postrelease supervision, or a combination of the two.
(6) "Community service" means compulsory service, without compensation, performed for the benefit of the community by the offender.
(7) "Community supervision" means a period of time during which a convicted offender is subject to crime-related prohibitions and other sentence conditions imposed by a court pursuant to this chapter or RCW 16.52.200(6) or 46.61.524. For first-time offenders, the supervision may include crime-related prohibitions and other conditions imposed pursuant to 9.94A.120(5). For purposes of the interstate compact for out-of-state supervision of parolees and probationers, RCW 9.95.270, community supervision is the functional equivalent of probation and should be considered the same as probation by other states.
(8) "Confinement" means total or partial confinement as defined in this section.
(9) "Conviction" means an adjudication of guilt pursuant to Titles 10 or13 RCW and includes a verdict of guilty, a finding of guilty, and acceptance of a plea of guilty.
(10) “Court-ordered legal financial obligation” means a sum of money that is ordered by a superior court of the state of Washington for legal financial obligations which may include restitution to the victim, statutorily imposed crime victims’ compensation fees as assessed pursuant to RCW 7.68.035, court costs, county or interlocal drug funds, court-appointed attorneys’ fees, and costs of defense, fines, and any other financial obligation that is assessed to the offender as a result of a felony conviction. Upon conviction for vehicular assault while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, RCW 46.61.522(1)(b), or vehicular homicide while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, RCW 46.61.520(1)(a), legal financial obligations may also include payment to a public agency of the expense of an emergency response to the incident resulting in the convictions, subject to the provisions in RCW 38.52.430.
(11) "Crime-related prohibition" means an order of a court prohibiting conduct that directly relates to the circumstances of the crime for which the offender has been convicted, and shall not be construed to mean orders directing an offender affirmatively to participate in rehabilitative programs or to otherwise perform affirmative conduct.
(12)(a) "Criminal history" means the list of a defendant's prior convictions, whether in this state, in federal court, or elsewhere. The history shall include, where known, for each conviction (i) whether the defendant has been placed on probation and the length and terms thereof; and (ii) whether the defendant has been incarcerated and the length of incarceration.
(b) “Criminal history” shall always include juvenile convictions for sex offenses and shall also include a defendant’s other prior convictions in juvenile court if: (i) The conviction was for an offense which is a felony or a serious traffic offense and is criminal history as defined in RCW 13.40.020(9); (ii) the defendant was fifteen years of age or older at the time the offense was committed; and (iii) with respect to prior juvenile class B and C felonies or serious traffic offenses, the defendant was less than twenty-three years of age at the time the offense for which he or she is being sentenced was committed.
(13) "Day fine" means a fine imposed by the sentencing judge that equals the difference between the offender's net daily income and the reasonable obligations that the offender has for the support of the offender and any dependents.
(14) "Day reporting" means a program of enhanced supervision designed to monitor the defendant's daily activities and compliance with sentence conditions, and in which the defendant is required to report daily to a specific location designated by the department or the sentencing judge.
(15) "Department" means the department of corrections.
(16) "Determinate sentence" means a sentence that states with exactitude the number of actual years, months, or days of total confinement, of partial confinement, of community supervision, the number of actual hours or days of community service work, or dollars or terms of a legal financial obligation. The fact that an offender through “early release” can reduce the actual period of confinement shall not affect the classification of the sentence as a determinate sentence.
(17) "Disposable earnings" means that part of the earnings of an individual remaining after the deduction from those earnings of any amount required by law to be withheld. For the purposes of this definition, "earnings" means compensation paid or payable for personal services, whether denominated as wages, salary, commission, bonuses, or otherwise, and, notwithstanding any other provision of law making the payments exempt from garnishment, attachment, or other process to satisfy a court-ordered legal financial obligation, specifically includes periodic payments pursuant to pension or retirement programs, or insurance policies of any type, but does not include payments made under Title 50 RCW, except as provided in RCW 50.40.020 and 50.40.050, or Title 74 RCW.
(18) "Drug offense" means:
(a) Any felony violation of chapter 69.50 RCW except possession of a controlled substance (RCW 69.50.401(d)) or forged prescription for a controlled substance (RCW 69.50.403);
(b) Any offense defined as a felony under federal law that relates to the possession, manufacture, distribution, or transportation of a controlled substance; or
(c) Any out-of-state conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be a felony classified as a drug offense under (a) of this subsection.
(19) "Escape" means:
(a) Escape in the first degree (RCW 9A.76.110), escape in the second degree (RCW 9A.76.120), willful failure to return from furlough (RCW 72.66.060), willful failure to return from work release (RCW 72.65.070), or willful failure to be available for supervision by the department while in community custody (RCW 72.09.310); or
(b) Any federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be a felony classified as an escape under (a) of this subsection.
(20) "Felony traffic offense" means:
(a) Vehicular homicide (RCW 46.61.520), vehicular assault (RCW 46.61.522), eluding a police officer (RCW 46.61.024), or felony hit-and-run injury-accident (RCW 46.52.020(4)); or
(b) Any federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be a felony classified as a felony traffic offense under (a) of this subsection.
(21) "Fines" means the requirement that the offender pay a specific sum of money over a specific period of time to the court.
(22)(a) "First-time offender" means any person is convicted of a felony (i) not classified as a violent offense or sex offense under this chapter, or (ii) that is not the manufacture, delivery, or possession with intent to manufacture or deliver a controlled substance classified in Schedule I or II that is a narcotic drug, nor the manufacture, delivery, or possession with intent to manufacture or deliver methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of its isomers as defined in RCW 69.50.206(d)(2), nor the selling for profit of any controlled substance or counterfeit substance classified in schedule I, RCW 69.50.204, except leaves and flowering tops of marihuana, and except as provided in (b) of this subsection, who previously has never been convicted of a felony in this state, federal court, or another state, and who has never participated in a program of deferred prosecution for a felony offense.
(b) For purposes of (a) of this subsection, a juvenile adjudication for an offense committed before the age of fifteen years is not a previous felony conviction except for adjudications of sex offenses.
(23) "Most serious offense" means any of the following felonies or a felony attempt to commit any of the following felonies, as now existing or hereafter amended:
(a) Any felony defined under any law as a class A felony or criminal solicitation of or criminal conspiracy to commit a class A felony;
(b) Assault in the second degree;
(c) Assault of a child in the second degree;
(d) Child molestation in the second degree;
(e) Controlled substance homicide;
(f) Extortion in the first degree;
(g) Incest when committed against a child under age fourteen;
(h) Indecent liberties;
(i) Kidnapping in the second degree;
(j) Leading organized crime;
(k) Manslaughter in the first degree;
(l) Manslaughter in the second degree;
(m) Promoting prostitution in the first degree;
(n) Rape in the third degree;
(o) Robbery in the second degree;
(p) Sexual exploitation;
(q) Vehicular assault;
(r) Vehicular homicide, when proximately caused by the driving of any vehicle by any person while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug as defined by RCW 46.61.502, or by the operation of any vehicle in a reckless manner;
(s) Any other class B felony offense with a finding of sexual motivation, as “sexual motivation” is defined under this section;
(t) Any other felony with a deadly weapon verdict under RCW 9.94A.125;
(u) Any felony offense in effect at any time prior to December 2, 1993, that is comparable to a most serious offense under this subsection, or any federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be a felony classified as a most serious offense under this subsection.
(24) "Nonviolent offense" means an offense which is not a violent offense.
(25) "Offender" means a person who has committed a felony established by state law and is eighteen years of age or older or is less than eighteen years of age but whose case has been transferred by the appropriate juvenile court to a criminal court pursuant to RCW 13.40.110. Throughout this chapter, the terms "offender" and "defendant" are used interchangeably.
(26) "Partial confinement" means confinement for no more than one year in a facility or institution operated or utilized under contract by the state or any other unit of government, or, if home detention or work crew has been ordered by the court, in an approved residence, for a substantial portion of each day with the balance of the day spent in the community. Partial confinement includes work release, home detention, work crew, and a combination of work crew and home detention as defined in this section.
(27) "Persistent offender" is an offender who:
(a) Has been convicted in this state of any felony considered a most serious offense; and
(b) Has, before the commission of the offense under (a) of this subsection, been convicted as an offender on at least two separate occasions, whether in this state or elsewhere, of felonies that under the laws of this state would be considered most serious offenses and would be included in the offender score under RCW 9.94A.360; provided that of the two or more previous convictions, at least one conviction must have occurred before the commission of any of the other most serious offenses for which the offender was previously convicted.
(28) "Postrelease supervision" is that portion of an offender's community placement that is not community custody.
(29) "Restitution" means the requirement that the offender pay a specific sum of money as payment of damages. The sum may include both public and private costs The imposition of a restitution order does not preclude civil redress.
(30) "Serious traffic offense" means:
(a) Driving while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug (RCW 46.61.502), actual physical control while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug (RCW 46.61.504), reckless driving (RCW 46.61.500), or hit-and-run an attended vehicle (RCW 46.52.020(5)); or
(b) Any federal, out-of-state, county, or municipal conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be classified as a serious traffic offense under (a) of this subsection.
(31) "Serious violent offense" is a subcategory of violent offense and means:
(a) Murder in the first degree, homicide by abuse, murder in the second degree, assault in the first degree, kidnapping in the first degree, rape in the first degree, assault of a child in the first degree, or an attempt, criminal solicitation, or criminal conspiracy to commit one of these felonies; or
(b) Any federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be a felony classified as a serious violent offense under (a) of this subsection.
(32) “Sentence range” means the sentencing court’s discretionary range in imposing a nonappealable sentence.
(33) "Sex offense" means:
(a) A felony that is a violation of: Chapter 9A.44 RCW or RCW 9A.64.020 or RCW 9.68A.090 or that is, under chapter 9A.28 RCW, a criminal attempt, criminal solicitation, or criminal conspiracy to commit such crimes;
(b) A felony with a finding of sexual motivation under RCW 9.94A.127; or
(c) Any federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be a felony classified as a sex offense under (a) of this subsection.
(34) "Sexual motivation" means that one of the purposes for which the defendant committed the crime was for the purpose of his or her sexual gratification.
(35) "Total confinement" means confinement inside the physical boundaries of a facility or institution operated or utilized under contract by the state or any other unit of government for twenty-four hours a day, or pursuant to RCW 72.64.050 and 72.64.060.
(36) "Transition training" means written and verbal instructions and assistance provided by the department to the offender during the two weeks prior to the offender's successful completion of the work ethic camp program. The transition training shall include instructions in the offender's requirements and obligations during the offender's period of community custody.
(37) "Victim" means any person who has sustained emotional, psychological, physical, or financial injury to person or property as a direct result of the crime charged.
(38) "Violent offense" means:
(a) Any of the following felonies, as now existing or hereafter amended: Any felony defined under any law as a class A felony or an attempt to commit a class A felony, criminal solicitation of or criminal conspiracy to commit a class A felony, manslaughter in the first degree, manslaughter in the second degree, indecent liberties if committed by forcible compulsion, kidnapping in the second degree, arson in the second degree, assault in the second degree, assault of a child in the second degree, extortion in the first degree, robbery in the second degree, vehicular assault, and vehicular homicide, when proximately caused by the driving of any vehicle by any person while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug as defined by RCW 46.61.502, or by the operation of any vehicle in a reckless manner;
(b) Any conviction for a felony offense in effect at any time prior to July 1, 1976, that is comparable to a felony classified as a violent offense in (a) of this subsection; and
(c) Any federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be a felony classified as a violent offense under (a) or (b) of this subsection.
(39) "Work crew" means a program of partial confinement consisting of civic improvement tasks for the benefit of the community of not less than thirty-five hours per week that complies with RCW 9.94A.135. The civic improvement tasks shall have minimal negative impact on existing private industries or the labor force in the county where the service or labor is performed. The civic improvement tasks shall not affect employment opportunities for people with developmental disabilities contracted through sheltered workshops as defined in RCW 82.04.385. Only those offenders sentenced to a facility operated or utilized under contract by a county or the state are eligible to participate on a work crew. Offenders sentenced for a sex offense as defined in subsection (33) of this section are not eligible for the work crew program.
(40) "Work ethic camp" means an alternative incarceration program designed to reduce recidivism and lower the cost of corrections by requiring offenders to complete a comprehensive array of real-world job and vocational experiences, character-building work ethics training, life management skills development, substance abuse rehabilitation, counseling, literacy training, and basic adult education.
(41) "Work release" means a program of partial confinement available to offenders who are employed or engaged as a student in a regular course of study at school. Participation in work release shall be conditioned upon the offender attending work or school at regularly defined hours and abiding by the rules of the work release facility.
(42) "Home detention" means a program of partial confinement available to offenders wherein the offender is confined in a private residence subject to electronic surveillance.
[1995 c 108 § 1; 1994 c 261 § 16; prior: 1994 c 1 § 3 (Initiative Measure No. 593, approved November 2, 1993); 1993 c 338 § 2; 1993 c 251 § 4; 1993 c 164 § 1; prior: 1992 c 145 § 6; 1992 c 75 § 1; prior: 1991 c 348 § 4; 1991 c 290 § 3; 1991 c 181 § 1; 1991 c 32 § 1; 1990 c 3 § 602; prior: 1989 c 394 § 1; 1989 c 252 § 2; prior: 1988 c 157 § 1; 1988 c 154 § 2; 1988 c 153 § 1; 1988 c 145 § 11; prior: 1987 c 458 § 1; 1987 c 456 § 1; 1987 c 187 § 3; 1986 c 257 § 17; 1985 c 346 § 5; 1984 c 209 § 3; 1983 c 164 § 9; 1983 c 163 § 1; 1982 c 192 § 1; 1981 c 137 § 3.]
Effective date -- 1995 c 108: "This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and shall take effect immediately [April 19, 1995]." [1995 c 108 § 6.]
Finding -- Intent -- 1994 c 261: See note following RCW 16.52.011.
Severability -- Short title -- Captions -- 1994 c 1: See notes following RCW 9.94A.392.
Severability -- Effective date--1993 c 338: See notes following RCW 72.09.400.
Finding -- Intent--1993 c 251: See note following RCW 38.52.430.
Effective date -- 1991 c 348: See note following RCW 46.61.520.
Effective date -- Application -- 1990 c 3 §§ 601-605: See note following RCW 9.94A.127.
Index, part headings not law -- Severability -- Effective dates -- Application -- 1990 c 3: See RCW 18.155.900 through 18.155.902.
Purpose -- 1989 c 252: "The purpose of this act is to create a system that: (1) Assists the courts in sentencing felony offenders regarding the offenders' legal financial obligations; (2) holds offenders accountable to victims, counties, cities, the state, municipalities, and society for the assessed costs associated with their crimes; and (3) provides remedies for an individual or other entities to recoup or at least defray a portion of the loss associated with the costs of felonious behavior." [1989 c 252 § 1.]
Prospective application -- 1989 c 252: "Except for sections 18, 22, 23, and 24 of this act, this act applies prospectively only and not retrospectively. It applies only to offenses committed on or after the effective date of this act." [1989 c 252 § 27.]
Effective dates -- 1989 c 252: "(1) Sections 1 through 17, 19 through 21, 25, 26, and 28 of this act shall take effect July 1, 1990 unless otherwise directed by law.
(2) Sections 18, 22, 23, and 24 of this act are necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and shall take effect July 1, 1989." [1989 c 252 § 30.]
Severability -- 1989 c 252: "If any provision of this act or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected." [1989 c 252 § 31.]
Application -- 1988 c 157: "This act applies to crimes committed after July 1, 1988." [1988 c 157 § 7.]
Effective date -- 1988 c 153: "This act shall take effect July 1, 1988." [1988 c 153 § 16.]
Application of increased sanctions -- 1988 c 153: "Increased sanctions authorized by this act are applicable only to those persons committing offenses after July 1, 1988." [1988 c 153 § 15.]
Effective date -- Savings -- Application -- 1988 c 145: See notes following RCW 9A.44.010.
Severability -- 1987 c 458: See note following RCW 48.21.160.
Severability -- 1986 c 257: See note following RCW 9A.56.010.
Effective date -- 1986 c 257 §§ 17-35: "Sections 17 through 35 of this act shall take effect July 1, 1986." [1986 c 257 § 38.]
Effective dates -- 1984 c 209: See note following RCW 9.92.150.
Effective date -- 1983 c 163: See note following RCW 9.94A.120.
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