Chapter 9.94A RCW
When a person is convicted of a felony, the court shall impose punishment as provided in this section.
(1) Except as authorized in subsections (2), (4), (5), (6), and (8) of this section, the court shall impose a sentence within the sentence range for the offense.
(2) The court may impose a sentence outside the standard sentence range for that offense if it finds, considering the purpose of this chapter, that there are substantial and compelling reasons justifying an exceptional sentence.
(3) Whenever a sentence outside the standard range is imposed, the court shall set forth the reasons for its decision in written findings of fact and conclusions of law. A sentence outside the standard range shall be a determinate sentence.
(4) A persistent offender shall be sentenced to a term of total confinement for life without the possibility of release or, when authorized by RCW 10.95.030 for the crime of aggravated murder in the first degree, sentenced to death, notwithstanding the maximum sentence under any other law. An offender convicted of the crime of murder in the first degree shall be sentenced to a term of total confinement not less than twenty years. An offender convicted of the crime of assault in the first degree or assault of a child in the first degree where the offender used force or means likely to result in death or intended to kill the victim shall be sentenced to a term of total confinement not less than five years. An offender convicted of the crime of rape in the first degree shall be sentenced to a term of total confinement not less than five years. The foregoing minimum terms of total confinement are mandatory and shall not be varied or modified as provided in subsection (2) of this section. In addition, all offenders subject to the provisions of this subsection shall not be eligible for community custody, earned release time, furlough, home detention, partial confinement, work crew, work release, or any other form of release as defined under RCW 9.94A.150 (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (7), or (8), or any other form of authorized leave from a correctional facility while not in the direct custody of a corrections officer or officers during such minimum terms of total confinement except in the case of an offender in need of emergency medical treatment or for the purpose of commitment to an inpatient treatment facility in the case of an offender convicted of the crime of rape in the first degree.
(5) In sentencing a first-time offender the court may waive the imposition of a sentence within the standard sentence range and impose a sentence which may include up to ninety days of confinement in a facility operated or utilized under contract by the county and a requirement that the offender refrain from committing new offenses. The sentence may also include up to two years of community supervision, which, in addition to crime-related prohibitions, may include requirements that the offender perform any one or more of the following:
(a) Devote time to a specific employment or occupation;
(b) Undergo available outpatient treatment for up to two years, or inpatient treatment not to exceed the standard range of confinement for that offense;
(c) Pursue a prescribed, secular course of study or vocational training;
(d) Remain within prescribed geographical boundaries and notify the court or the community corrections officer prior to any change in the offender's address or employment;
(e) Report as directed to the court and a community corrections officer; or
(f) Pay all court-ordered legal financial obligations as provided in RCW 9.94A.030 and/or perform community service work.
(6)(a) An offender is eligible for the special drug offender sentencing alternative if:
(i) The offender is convicted of the manufacture, delivery, or possession with intent to manufacture or deliver a controlled substance defined in Schedule I or II that is a narcotic drug or a felony that is, under chapter 9A.28 RCW or RCW 69.50.407, a criminal attempt, criminal solicitation or criminal conspiracy to commit such crimes, and the violation does not involve a sentence enhancement under RCW 9.94A.310 (3);
(ii) The offender has no prior convictions for a felony in this state, another state, or the United States; and
(iii) The offense involved only a small quantity of the particular controlled substance as determined by the judge upon consideration of such factors as the weight, purity, packaging, sale price, and street value of the controlled substance.
(b) If the midpoint of the sentence range is greater than one year and the sentencing court determines that the offender is eligible for this alternative and that the offender and the community will benefit from the use of the alternative, the judge may waive imposition of a sentence within the standard sentence range and impose a sentence that must include a period of total confinement in a state facility for one-half of the midpoint of the standard range. During incarceration in the state facility, offenders sentenced under this subsection shall undergo a comprehensive substance abuse assessment and receive, within available resources, treatment services appropriate for the offender. The treatment services shall be designed by the division of alcohol and substance abuse of the department of social and health services, in cooperation with the department of corrections. If the midpoint of the standard range is twenty-four months or less, no more than three months of the sentence may be served in a work release status.
The court shall also impose one year of concurrent community custody and community supervision that must include appropriate outpatient substance abuse treatment, crime-related prohibitions including a condition not to use illegal controlled substances, and a requirement to submit to urinalysis or other testing to monitor that status.
The court may require that the monitoring for controlled substances be conducted by the department or by a treatment alternative[s] to street crime program or a comparable court or agency-referred program. The offender may be required to pay thirty dollars per month while on community custody to offset the cost of monitoring. In addition, the court shall impose three or more of the following conditions:
(i) Devote time to a specific employment or training;
(ii) Remain within prescribed geographical boundaries and notify the court or the community corrections officer before any change in the offender's address or employment;
(iii) Report as directed to a community corrections officer;
(iv) Pay all court-ordered legal financial obligations;
(v) Perform community service work;
(vi) Stay out of areas designated by the sentencing judge;
(c) If the offender violates any of the sentence conditions in (b) of this subsection, the department shall impose sanctions administratively, with notice to the prosecuting attorney and the sentencing court. Upon motion of the court or the prosecuting attorney, a violation hearing shall be held by the court. If the court finds that conditions have been willfully violated, the court may impose confinement consisting of up to the remaining one-half of the midpoint of the standard range. All total confinement served during the period of community custody shall be credited to the offender, regardless of whether the total confinement is served as a result of the original sentence, as a result of a sanction imposed by the department, or as a result of a violation found by the court. The term of community supervision shall be tolled by any period of time spent in total confinement as a result of a violation found by the court.
(d) The department shall determine the rules for calculating the value of a day fine based on the offender's income and reasonable obligations which the offender has for the support of the offender and any dependents. These rules shall be developed in consultation with the administrator for the courts, the office of financial management, and the commission.
(7) If a standard sentence range has not been established for the defendant's crime, the court shall impose a determinate sentence which may include not more than one year of confinement, community service work, a term of community supervision not to exceed one year, and/or other legal financial obligations. The court may impose a sentence which provides more than one year of confinement if the court finds, considering the purpose of this chapter, that there are substantial and compelling reasons justifying an exceptional sentence.
(8)(a)(i) When the offender is convicted of a sex offense other than a violation of RCW 9A.44.050 or a sex offense that is also a serious violent offense and has no prior convictions for a sex offense or any other felony sex offenses in this or any other state, the sentencing court, on its own motion or the motion of the state or the defendant, may order an examination to determine whether the defendant is amenable to treatment.
The report of the examination shall include at a minimum the following: The defendant's version of the facts and the official version of the facts, the defendant's offense history, an assessment of problems in addition to alleged deviant behaviors, the offender's social and employment situation, and other evaluation measures used. The report shall set forth the sources of the examiner's information.
The examiner shall assess and report regarding the defendant's amenability to treatment and relative risk to the community. A proposed treatment plan shall be provided and shall include, at a minimum:
(A) Frequency and type of contact between offender and therapist;
(B) Specific issues to be addressed in the treatment and description of planned treatment modalities;
(C) Monitoring plans, including any requirements regarding living conditions, lifestyle requirements, and monitoring by family members and others;
(D) Anticipated length of treatment; and
(E) Recommended crime-related prohibitions.
The court on its own motion may order, or on a motion by the state shall order, a second examination regarding the offender's amenability to treatment. The examiner shall be selected by the party making the motion. The offender shall pay the cost of any second examination ordered unless the court finds the defendant to be indigent in which case the state shall pay the cost.
(ii) After receipt of the reports, the court shall consider whether the offender and the community will benefit from use of this special sex offender sentencing alternative and consider the victim's opinion whether the offender should receive a treatment disposition under this subsection. If the court determines that this special sex offender sentencing alternative is appropriate, the court shall then impose a sentence within the standard range. If the sentence imposed is less then than eight years of confinement, the court may suspend the execution of the sentence and impose the following conditions of suspension:
(A) The court shall place the defendant on community supervision for the length of the suspended sentence or three years, whichever is greater; and
(B) The court shall order treatment for any period up to three years in duration. The court in its discretion shall order outpatient sex offender treatment or inpatient sex offender treatment, if available. A community mental health center may not be used for such treatment unless it has an appropriate program designed for sex offender treatment. The offender shall not change sex offender treatment providers or treatment conditions without first notifying the prosecutor, the community corrections officer, and the court, and shall not change providers or without court approval after a hearing if the prosecutor or community corrections officer object to the change. In addition, as conditions of the suspended sentence, the court may impose other sentence conditions including up to six months of confinement, not to exceed the sentence range of confinement for that offense, crime-related prohibitions, and requirements that the offender perform any one or more of the following:
(I) Devote time to a specific employment or occupation;
(II) Remain within prescribed geographical boundaries and notify the court or the community corrections officer prior to any change in the offender's address or employment;
(III) Report as directed to the court and a community corrections officer;
(IV) Pay all court-ordered legal financial obligations as provided in RCW 9.94A.030, perform community service work, or any combination thereof; or
(V) Make recoupment to the victim for the cost of any counseling required as a result of the offender's crime.
(iii) The sex offender treatment provider shall submit quarterly reports on the defendant's progress in treatment to the court and the parties. The report shall reference the treatment plan and include at a minimum the following: Dates of attendance, defendant's compliance with requirements, treatment activities, the defendant's relative progress in treatment, and any other material specified by the court at sentencing.
(iv) At the time of sentencing, the court shall set a treatment termination hearing for three months prior to the anticipated date for completion of treatment. Prior to the treatment termination hearing, the treatment provider and community corrections officer shall submit written reports to the court and parties regarding the defendant's compliance with treatment and monitoring requirements, and recommendations regarding termination from treatment, including proposed community custody conditions. Either party may request and the court may order another evaluation regarding the advisability of termination from treatment. The defendant shall pay the cost of any additional evaluation ordered unless the court finds the defendant to be indigent in which case the state shall pay the cost. At the treatment termination hearing the court may: (A) Modify conditions of community supervision, and either (B) terminate treatment, or (C) extend treatment for up to the remaining period of community supervision.
(v) The court may revoke the suspended sentence at any time during the period of community supervision and order execution of the sentence if: (A) The defendant violates the conditions of the suspended sentence, or (B) the court finds that the defendant is failing to make satisfactory progress in treatment. All confinement time served during the period of community supervision shall be credited to the offender if the suspended sentence is revoked.
(vi) Except as provided in (a)(vii) of this subsection, after July 1, 1991, examinations and treatment ordered pursuant to this subsection shall only be conducted by sex offender treatment providers certified by the department of health pursuant to chapter 18.155 RCW.
(vii) A sex offender therapist who examines or treats a sex offender pursuant to this subsection (8) does not have to be certified by the department of health pursuant to chapter 18.155 RCW if the court finds that: (A) The offender has already moved to another state or plans to move to another state for reasons other than circumventing the certification requirements; (B) No certified providers are available for treatment within a reasonable geographical distance of the offender's home; and (C) The evaluation and treatment plan comply with this subsection (8) and the rules adopted by the department of health.
For purposes of this subsection, "victim" means any person who has sustained emotional, psychological, physical, or financial injury to person or property as a result of the crime charged. "Victim" also means a parent or guardian of a victim who is a minor child unless the parent or guardian is the perpetrator of the offense.
(b) When an offender commits any felony sex offense on or after July 1, 1987, and is sentenced to a term of confinement of more than one year but less than six years, the sentencing court may, on its own motion or on the motion of the offender or the state, request the department of corrections to evaluate whether the offender is amenable to treatment and the department may place the offender in a treatment program within a correctional facility operated by the department.
Except for an offender who has been convicted of a violation of RCW 9A.44.040 or 9A.44.050, if the offender completes the treatment program before the expiration of his or her term of confinement, the department of corrections may request the court to convert the balance of the confinement to community supervision and to place conditions on the offender including crime-related prohibitions and requirements that the offender perform any one or more of the following:
(i) Devote time to a specific employment or occupation;
(ii) Remain within prescribed geographical boundaries and notify the court or the community corrections officer prior to any change in the offender's address or employment;
(iii) Report as directed to the court and a community corrections officer;
(iv) Undergo available outpatient treatment.
If the offender violates any of the terms of his or her community supervision, the court may order the offender to serve out the balance of his or her community supervision term in confinement in the custody of the department of corrections.
Nothing in this subsection (8)(b) shall confer eligibility for such programs for offenders convicted and sentenced for a sex offense committed prior to July 1, 1987. This subsection (8)(b) does not apply to any crime committed after July 1, 1990.
(c) Offenders convicted and sentenced for a sex offense committed prior to July 1, 1987, may, subject to available funds, request an evaluation by the department of corrections to determine whether they are amenable to treatment. If the offender is determined to be amenable to treatment, the offender may request placement in a treatment program within a correctional facility operated by the department. Placement in such treatment program is subject to available funds.
(9)(a) When a court sentences an offender to a term of total confinement in the custody of the department for an offense characterized as a sex offense or a serious violent offense committed after July 1, 1988, but before July 1, 1990, assault in the second degree, assault of a child in the second degree, any crime against a person where it is determined in accordance with RCW 9.94A.125 that the offender or an accomplice was armed with a deadly weapon at the time of commission, or any felony offense under chapter 69.50 or 69.52 RCW not sentenced under subsection (6) of this section, committed on or after July 1, 1988, the court shall in addition to the other terms of the sentence, sentence the offender to a one-year term of community placement beginning either upon completion of the term of confinement or at such time as the offender is transferred to community custody in lieu of early release in accordance with RCW 9.94A.150 (1) and (2). When the court sentences an offender under this subsection to the statutory maximum period of confinement then the community placement portion of the sentence shall consist entirely of such community custody to which the offender may become eligible, in accordance with RCW 9.94A.150 (1) and (2). Any period of community custody actually served shall be credited against the community placement portion of the sentence.
(b) When the court sentences a person to a term of total confinement to the custody of the department of corrections for an offense categorized as a sex offense or serious violent offense, committed on or after July 1, 1990, the court shall in addition to the other terms of the sentence, sentence the offender to community placement for two years or up to the period of earned release in accordance with RCW 9.94A.150 (1) and (2), whichever is longer. The community placement shall begin either upon completion of the term of confinement or at such time as the offender is transferred to community custody in lieu of earned release. When the court sentences an offender to the statutory maximum sentence then the community placement portion of the sentence shall consist entirely of the community custody to which the offender may become eligible. Any period of community custody actually served shall be credited against the community placement portion of the sentence. Unless a condition is waived by the court, the terms of any community placement for offenders sentenced pursuant to this section shall include the following conditions:
(i) The offender shall report to and be available for contact with the assigned community corrections officer as directed;
(ii) The offender shall work at department of corrections-approved education, employment, and/or community service;
(iii) The offender shall not possess or consume controlled substances except pursuant to lawfully issued prescriptions;
(iv) An offender in community custody shall not unlawfully possess controlled substances;
(v) The offender shall pay supervision fees as determined by the department of corrections; and
(vi) The residence location and living arrangements shall be subject to the prior approval of the department of corrections during the period of community placement; and
(c) The court may also order one or more of the following special conditions:
(i) The offender shall remain within, or outside of, a specified geographical boundary;
(ii) The offender shall not have direct or indirect contact with the victim of the crime or a specified class of individuals;
(iii) The offender shall participate in crime-related treatment or counseling services;
(iv) The offender shall not consume alcohol; or
(v) The offender shall comply with any crime-related prohibitions.
(d) Prior to transfer to, or during, community placement, any conditions of community placement may be removed or modified so as not to be more restrictive by the sentencing court, upon recommendation of the department of corrections.
(10) If the court imposes a sentence requiring confinement of thirty days or less, the court may, in its discretion, specify that the sentence be served on consecutive or intermittent days. A sentence requiring more than thirty days of confinement shall be served on consecutive days. Local jail administrators may schedule court-ordered intermittent sentences as space permits.
(11) If a sentence imposed includes payment of a legal financial obligation, the sentence shall specify the total amount of legal financial obligations owed, and shall require the offender to pay a specified monthly sum toward that legal financial obligation. Restitution to victims shall be paid prior to any other payments of monetary obligations. Any legal financial obligation that is imposed by the court may be collected by the department, which shall deliver the amount paid to the county clerk for credit. The offender’s compliance with payment of legal financial obligations shall be supervised by the department. All monetary payments ordered shall be paid no later than ten years after the last date of release from confinement pursuant to a felony conviction or the date the sentence was entered. Independent of the department, the party or entity to whom the legal financial obligation is owed shall have the authority to utilize any other remedies available to the party or entity to collect the legal financial obligation. Nothing in this section makes the department, the state, or any of its employees, agents, or other persons acting on their behalf liable under any circumstances for the payment of these legal financial obligations. If an order includes restitution as one of the monetary assessments, the county clerk shall make disbursements to victims named in the order.
(12) Except as provided under RCW 9.94A.140(1) and 9.94A.142(1), a court may not impose a sentence providing for a term of confinement or community supervision or community placement which exceeds the statutory maximum for the crime as provided in chapter 9A.20 RCW.
(13) All offenders sentenced to terms involving community supervision, community service, community placement, or legal financial obligation shall be under the supervision of the secretary of the department of corrections or such person as the secretary may designate and shall follow explicitly the instructions of the secretary including reporting as directed to a community corrections officer, remaining within prescribed geographical boundaries, notifying the community corrections officer of any change in the offender's address or employment, and paying the supervision fee assessment.
The department may require offenders to pay for special services rendered on or after July 25, 1993, including electronic monitoring, day reporting, and telephone reporting, dependent upon the offender's ability to pay. The department may pay for these services for offenders who are not able to pay.
(14) All offenders sentenced to terms involving community supervision, community service, or community placement under the supervision of the department shall not own, use, or possess firearms or ammunition. Offenders who own, use, or are found to be in actual or constructive possession of firearms or ammunition shall be subject to the appropriate violation process and sanctions. "Constructive possession" as used in this subsection means the power and intent to control the firearm or ammunition. "Firearm" as used in this subsection means a weapon or device from which a projectile may be fired by an explosive such as gunpowder.
(15) The sentencing court shall give the offender credit for all confinement time served before the sentencing if that confinement was solely in regard to the offense for which the offender is being sentenced.
(16) A departure from the standards in RCW 9.94A.400 (1) and (2) governing whether sentences are to be served consecutively or concurrently is an exceptional sentence subject to the limitation of subsections (2) and (3) of this section, and may be appealed by the defendant or the state as set forth in RCW 9.94A.210 (2) through (6).
(17) The court shall order restitution whenever the offender is convicted of a felony that results in injury to any person or damage to or loss of property, whether the offender is sentenced to confinement or placed under community supervision, unless extraordinary circumstances exist that make restitution inappropriate in the court’s judgment. The court shall set forth the extraordinary circumstances in the record if it does not order restitution.
(18) As a part of any sentence, the court may impose and enforce an order that relates directly to the circumstances of the crime for which the offender has been convicted, prohibiting the offender from having any contact with other specified individuals or a specific class of individuals for a period not to exceed the maximum allowable sentence for the crime, regardless of the expiration of the offender’s term of community supervision or community placement.
(19) In any sentence of partial confinement, the court may require the defendant to serve the partial confinement in work release, in a program of home detention, on work crew, or in a combined program of work crew and home detention.
(20) All court-ordered legal financial obligations collected by the department and remitted to the county clerk shall be credited and paid where restitution is ordered. Restitution shall be paid prior to any other payments of monetary obligations.
[1995 c 108 § 3; prior: 1994 c 1 § 2 (Initiative Measure No. 593, approved November 2, 1993); 1993 c 31 § 3; prior: 1992 c 145 § 7; 1992 c 75 § 2; 1992 c 45 § 5; prior: 1991 c 221 § 2; 1991 c 181 § 3; 1991 c 104 § 3; 1990 c 3 § 705; 1989 c 252 § 4; prior: 1988 c 154 § 3; 1988 c 153 § 2; 1988 c 143 § 21; prior: 1987 c 456 § 2; 1987 c 402 § 1; prior: 1986 c 301 § 4; 1986 c 301 § 3; 1986 c 257 § 20; 1984 c 209 § 6; 1983 c 163 § 2; 1982 c 192 § 4; 1981 c 137 § 12. Recodified in 2001 as RCW 9.94A.505.]
Effective date -- 1995 c 108: See note following RCW 9.94A.030.
Severability -- Short title -- Captions -- 1994 c 1: See notes following RCW 9.94A.392.
Severability -- Application -- 1992 c 45: See notes following RCW 9.94A.151.
Index, part headings not law -- Severability -- Effective dates -- Application -- 1990 c 3: See RCW 18.155.900 through 18.155.902.
Purpose -- Prospective application -- Effective dates -- Severability -- 1989 c 252: See notes following RCW 9.94A.030.
Effective date -- Application of increased sanctions -- 1988 c 153: See notes following RCW 9.94A.030.
Applicability -- 1988 c 143 §§ 21-24: "Increased sanctions authorized by sections 21 through 24 of this act are applicable only to those persons committing offenses after March 21, 1988." [1988 c 143 § 25.]
Effective date -- 1987 c 402: "This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, and safety, the support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and shall take effect July 1, 1987." [1987 c 402 § 3.]
Effective date -- 1986 c 301 § 4: "Section 4 of this act shall take effect July 1, 1987." [1986 c 301 § 8.]
Severability -- 1986 c 257: See note following RCW 9A.56.010.
Effective date -- 1986 c 257 §§ 17-35: See note following RCW 9.94A.030.
Effective dates -- 1984 c 209: See note following RCW 9.94A.030.
Effective date -- 1983 c 163: "Sections 1 through 5 of this act shall take effect on July 1, 1984." [1983 c 163 § 7.]
Effective date -- 1981 c 137: See RCW 9.94A.905.
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